- Indexing with Consultation: This approach uses index funds or market baskets combined with individual bonds. Ideal for clients who want equity exposure at low cost, are not trying to “beat the market” and can utilize bonds or bond funds.
- Customized After-Tax Management: This approach is very sensitive to taxes and turnover and utilizes individual stocks and bonds. Careful attention is given to company fundamentals and scrutinizing portfolio risk such as concentrations, stock company fundamentals and asset allocation.
- Performance Driven Management: The primary goal of this approach is to generate returns higher than the markets by utilizing mutual funds or outside managers. No attention, for the most part, is given to taxes or turnover. Fees are higher.